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Mars atmosphere history unveiled by meteorite




Meteorite from Mars contains evidence of evaporated water

A meteorite from Mars has been in researchers’ labs since the 1980s, when it was first discovered in the Allan Hills in Antarctica. 2014 ended with scientists finding out new things about Mars’ atmosphere by examining the Allan Hills 84001, as the meteorite was dubbed. By analyzing meteorites such as the Allan Hills 84001, scientists can pinpoint the age of the rock, as well as learn about how Mars’ atmosphere functioned billions of years ago.

Even though massive breakthroughs have been made about Mars, including the discovery of water and hydrogen on the planet, long evaporated, as well as methane jets that had been lurking in the dry lakes of the planet, the new data obtained through the analysis of the meteorite gives us further understanding about the universe. According to researchers, the meteorite from Mars is about 3.9 billion years old, which means that it was formed during the Noachian era of Mars, when water was still present in its liquid form on the planet. From their analysis, we can understand that the Mars meteorite had made contact with water billions of years ago, proving that there was life once on the Red Planet.

Even though researchers are pretty confident in their findings, they stress the fact that the meteorite might not be valid proof of water on Mars just yet, since it could have made contact with water at a later time. We could assume that maybe water was present on the Red Planet for much longer than we could have thought, and the meteorite could have picked it up at a later time. At the same time, the oxygen compounds that indicate water on the meteorite might come from something else than our life-giving liquid. The new discoveries can not be held as proof of life on Mars just yet, but with further analysis, researchers can develop and sustain these ideas and bring forth more discoveries about the atmosphere of Mars throughout history.

As part of the editorial team here at Geekreply, John spends a lot of his time making sure each article is up to snuff. That said, he also occasionally pens articles on the latest in Geek culture. From Gaming to Science, expect the latest news fast from John and team.


The phenomenon of a magnetic avalanche caused by quantum processes, known as ‘Barkhausen noise’, has been observed for the first time





Iron screws and other ferromagnetic materials consist of atoms with electrons that behave as miniature magnets. Typically, the magnets’ orientations are aligned within a specific region of the material, but they vary between different regions. Imagine groups of tourists in Times Square, eagerly gesturing towards the various billboards that surround them. However, with the application of a magnetic field, the spins of the magnets in the various regions align, resulting in the material becoming completely magnetized. It’s as if all the tourists suddenly synchronized their movements to point at the same sign.

The alignment of spins, however, does not occur instantaneously. Instead, when a magnetic field is present, neighboring regions, known as domains, interact with each other, causing changes to propagate unevenly throughout the material. Scientists often draw parallels between this phenomenon and the cascading of snow in an avalanche, where a single piece of snow initiates the movement, exerting force on neighboring pieces until the entire mountainside of snow is in motion, all heading in the same direction.

In 1919, Heinrich Barkhausen showcased the avalanche effect in magnets, providing a groundbreaking demonstration. Through the clever use of a coil and a magnetic material connected to a loudspeaker, it was demonstrated that these fluctuations in magnetism produce an audible crackling sound, now referred to as Barkhausen noise.

A recent study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reveals that Barkhausen noise can be generated not just by conventional methods but also by quantum mechanical phenomena.

Experimental detection of quantum Barkhausen noise is a groundbreaking achievement. This research signifies a significant breakthrough in the field of physics and holds potential for future applications in the development of quantum sensors and electronic devices.

“Barkhausen noise is the result of the small magnets flipping together,” explains Christopher Simon, the lead author of the paper and a postdoctoral scholar in the lab of Thomas F. Rosenbaum, a professor of physics at Caltech, the president of the Institute, and the Sonja and William Davidow Presidential Chair.

“We are conducting a familiar experiment, but with a twist—in a quantum material.” We are observing that quantum effects can result in significant changes at a macroscopic level.

Typically, magnetic flips occur in a classical manner, through thermal activation. In this process, particles must temporarily acquire sufficient energy to overcome an energy barrier. However, the new study reveals that these flips can also happen through a process called quantum tunneling, which operates on a quantum level.

In the phenomenon of tunneling, particles have the ability to traverse an energy barrier by seemingly bypassing it altogether. If this effect could be applied to everyday objects, such as golf balls, it would be as if the golf ball effortlessly passed through a hill instead of having to ascend it to reach the other side.


“In the quantum realm, the ball doesn’t need to traverse a hill as it transforms into a wave-like particle, with a portion already present beyond the hill,” explains Simon.

Furthermore, the latest research reveals a fascinating co-tunneling phenomenon, where clusters of tunneling electrons interact and coordinate to induce simultaneous flips in the direction of their spins.

“Traditionally, every individual mini avalanche, where clusters of spins flip, would occur independently,” explains co-author Daniel Silevitch, a research professor of physics at Caltech. “However, it has been discovered that, by means of quantum tunneling, two avalanches occur simultaneously.” This phenomenon arises from the interaction between two extensive collections of electrons, which communicate with each other and, as a consequence of their interactions, bring about these alterations. This unexpected co-tunneling effect quite surprised me.

Members of the team utilized a pink crystalline material known as lithium holmium yttrium fluoride, which was cooled to temperatures close to absolute zero (-273.15°C) for their experiments. They placed a coil around it, applied a magnetic field, and then observed small changes in voltage, similar to Barkhausen’s experiment in 1919.

The voltage spikes that are observed indicate the moments when clusters of electron spins change their magnetic orientations. When the groups of spins flip, one after the other, we can observe a series of voltage spikes known as the Barkhausen noise.

Through careful analysis of the noise, the researchers demonstrated the occurrence of a magnetic avalanche, even in the absence of classical effects. They demonstrated that these effects remained unaffected by variations in the material’s temperature. Through careful analysis, they reached the conclusion that quantum effects were the underlying cause of the significant transformations.

Scientists have found that these regions can hold an astonishing number of spins, far more than the rest of the crystal.

“We are observing this quantum behavior in materials containing an incredibly large number of spins.” Ensemblies of microscopic objects are all behaving in a coherent manner,” Rosenbaum says. “This work exemplifies the core focus of our lab: isolating and comprehending quantum mechanical effects.”

Researchers in Rosenbaum’s lab recently published another paper in PNAS that examines the fascinating connection between minute quantum effects and their influence on larger-scale phenomena. In the earlier study, scientists looked at the element chromium and showed how two different types of charge modulation—one involving ions and the other involving electrons—interact with each other at different length scales using quantum mechanics.

“Chromium has been a subject of study for quite some time,” remarks Rosenbaum, “yet only recently have we come to fully grasp this particular facet of quantum mechanics.” This is yet another instance of designing uncomplicated systems to uncover quantum phenomena that can be observed on a larger scale.

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Groundbreaking Discovery: Nature Reveals Unprecedented Superconductor





Researchers have identified the initial non-traditional superconductor that has a chemical composition with natural substances. The mineral under consideration is known as miassite, a remarkably distinctive material. Three further natural superconductors exist, all of which adhere to the principles outlined in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer hypothesis, which is recognized as the initial microscopic theory of superconductivity. The presence of lab-grown miassite is distinct.

Superconductivity refers to the property of a substance to exhibit zero electrical resistance, allowing it to transfer electricity without any energy loss while simultaneously generating magnetic fields outside the material. This phenomenon occurs at temperatures below a specific critical threshold. The production of electron pair bonding in a state is responsible for this phenomenon in typical superconductors. They are commonly referred to as cooperating pairs. Unconventional superconductors have similar macroscopic properties, but their state is attributed to a distinct factor.

Conventional and unusual superconductors exhibit a distinct disparity. The former has a critical temperature that is significantly closer to absolute zero, whereas the latter demonstrates the ability to exhibit high-temperature superconductence. High temperature refers to temperatures exceeding 77 Kelvin, which is still distant from achieving room-temperature superconductivity but is progressing towards it.

Miassite is the solution for this situation. Despite possessing a very low critical temperature of -267.75°C (-449.95°F), this material exhibits the characteristic features of superconductors with higher critical temperatures. Consequently, researchers aim to utilize this material in order to get a deeper comprehension of the underlying mechanisms responsible for unconventional superconductivity. The compound exhibits a sophisticated chemical formula consisting of 17 rhodium atoms and 15 sulfur atoms (Rh17S15).

Senior author Ruslan Prozorov from the Ames National Laboratory stated that it is improbable for this phenomenon to occur naturally and that it is intuitively believed to be the result of deliberate creation by a focused investigation. However, it is evident that it does.

Miassite was observed in the vicinity of the Miass River inside the Chelyabinsk Oblast of Russia. The ingredients responsible for its reactivity with oxygen contribute to its relatively low occurrence. Furthermore, due to its inability to form well-defined crystals, the evaluation of its qualities can only be conducted through laboratory growth.

Scientists were investigating rhodium-sulfur systems as a potential location for the presence of intriguing superconductors. Prozorov’s group maintained the material at a temperature just above absolute zero (-273.1°C/-460°F), and after achieving superconductivity, they conducted tests to determine its typical behavior.

A test known as the “London penetration depth” is conducted. Within a typical superconductor, a feeble magnetic field has the ability to permeate the entirety of the material at a consistent distance. In an atypical manner, this phenomenon varies in accordance with the temperature.

An alternative methodology involved subjecting the material to high-energy electrons, resulting in the formation of flaws. These flaws have a significant impact on unconventional superconductors. Miassite exhibited characteristics akin to those of an unusual superconductor.

“It is akin to uncovering a concealed fishing hole that is teeming with large, fatty fish.” Three novel superconductors were identified in the Rh-S system. According to Professor Paul Canfield, affiliated with Iowa State University and Ames Lab, it was determined through Ruslan’s meticulous measurements that miassite exhibits characteristics of an unusual superconductor. Canfield created miassite specifically for this endeavor.

The findings have been documented in a scholarly article published in the journal Communications Materials.

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Mexican Congress hears UFOs with ‘alien’ bodies





(Reuters). Mexico’s first congressional UFO hearing featured “we are not alone” and alleged non-human remains.

Politicians were shown two artifacts that Mexican journalist and longtime UFO enthusiast Jaime Maussan claimed were extraterrestrial corpses at the Tuesday hearing on FANI.

Maussan said The specimens were unrelated to Earthly life.

Two tiny “bodies,” displayed in cases, have elongated heads and three fingers each. Maussan said they were found in Peru near Nazca Lines in 2017. He estimated their age at 1,000 years using Mexico’s National Autonomous University’s carbon dating.

Mummified children were once found.

Maussan presented such evidence first.

“I think there is a clear demonstration that we are dealing with non-human specimens that are NOT related to any other species in our world and that any scientific institution can investigate it,” Maussan said.

“We are not alone,” he said.

“I can affirm that these bodies have no relation to human beings.”

Thursday, UNAM republished a 2017 statement saying its National Laboratory of Mass Spectrometry with Accelerators (LEMA) only wanted sample ages.

“In no case do we make conclusions about said samples’ origin,” it said.

Congress heard from former Navy pilot Ryan Graves about UAP sightings and the stigma of reporting them.

Sergio Gutierrez, a Morena congressman for President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, hoped the hearing would be the first of many in Mexico.

“We are left with reflections, concerns, and how to continue discussing this,” Gutierrez said.

Recent years have seen the U.S. government release UAP data after decades of denial. In recent years, NASA’s first independent UFO panel and the Pentagon have investigated military aviator sightings.

NASA will discuss study results Thursday.

Skeptics slammed Maussan’s Wednesday presentation.

“This could really hurt efforts to take the issue seriously,” tweeted. “Why didn’t they publish it after a scientific paper?”

X-rays, 3-D reconstruction, and DNA analysis were done on the remains, according to Mexican navy Scientific Institute for Health Director Jose de Jesus Zalce Benitez.

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