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Space Exploration

What caused the aurorae to be visible at such distant locations from the poles over the weekend?

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Mid-latitude stargazers had a delightful weekend. The recent period of heightened solar activity reached its peak with an extraordinary auroral phenomenon, visible even at latitudes where such a spectacle is typically not observed. Social media was abundantly filled with pictures, likely due to the weekend. Many individuals expressed curiosity about the occurrence and its frequency.

According to the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, the Earth recently encountered a severe geomagnetic storm in the G5 category, which was the most intense event since Halloween 2003. Previously, the event was sufficiently intense to result in generator malfunctions in both Sweden and South Africa. Typically, there are four occurrences of these events during each solar cycle.

There are 11 years in a solar cycle. The Sun’s activity has a high point called the maximum and a low point called the minimum. We are getting close to Cycle 25’s peak (or we are already there). In every case, the peak is seen after the event. If you’re good at math, you might have noticed that 2003 was more than 11 years ago. But Solar Cycle 24 was very different and not very strong, so it didn’t cause any G5 or G4 storms, even though each cycle usually brings 100 G4 storms.

As the Sun’s activity rises, sunspot regions appear that are a little cooler than the rest of the surface. They have very strong magnetic fields, and how these magnetic fields behave is what causes the major space weather events. A sunspot called AR3664, which is 16 times as wide as Earth, is what caused the aurora this weekend.

“One of the most basic things about magnetic field lines is that they usually can’t cross each other.” Thus, as they twist and knot, they store energy like a spring that is wound up. “Magnetic reconnection” means that these fields loosen up quickly, which can send explosive energy into space.” In a statement, the scientist in charge of space weather, Dr. John Morgan,.

Sunspots can be the cause of solar flares, which are powerful light flashes. They reach Earth eight minutes later and ionize atoms in the upper atmosphere, making it puff up. They block radio signals, mess up GPS, and put stress on satellites. AR3664 sent out an X5.8 flare, which was the second strongest of this cycle so far.

But it’s not just flares from the sun. Space weather also includes coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These are bursts of plasma moving very quickly from the Sun. At the moment, charged particles are hitting Earth, but CMEs have a lot more power. It takes a very long time for these particles to move at this speed. When they get to Earth, they follow the lines of the magnetic field and crash into the atmosphere near the poles.

Most of the time,. Northern Lights were seen in mainland Australia, Tuscany, Italy, and Southern California, which are all very far from the poles. They could be seen even in places with a lot of light pollution. That’s because a lot of plasma came in. Earth was in the right spot at the right time for several CMEs to happen at the same time. Three of them came together to form a “cannibal CME” because the last one the Sun sent out was faster than the other two and ate them up.

Some of that plasma made it to Earth and hit the atmosphere at lower latitudes more often. This meant that aurorae could be seen from many places that don’t normally see them. A lot of people also want to know if it will happen again.

“No one knows for sure.” He said, “The last few days seem to have been some of the most important events of the smartphone era.” “It’s possible that we’ve just seen the most active aurora for this solar cycle.” But history shows that big events can happen even many years after the solar cycle’s peak. For those who missed it, there’s a good chance that something similar will happen in the next few years.

As Editor here at GeekReply, I'm a big fan of all things Geeky. Most of my contributions to the site are technology related, but I'm also a big fan of video games. My genres of choice include RPGs, MMOs, Grand Strategy, and Simulation. If I'm not chasing after the latest gear on my MMO of choice, I'm here at GeekReply reporting on the latest in Geek culture.

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Space Exploration

Soon, “One Of The Rarest Space Events Of Our Lives” will happen around the world

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So far, this decade has been pretty good for seeing cosmic events. In addition to the total solar eclipse and the sun getting close to its busiest time, which will create beautiful auroras on Earth, T. Coronae Borealis will soon go nova, which was first written about in a medieval manuscript.

There are still a few more treats in store for us in this decade, like a visit from the asteroid 99942 Apophis. According to observations, Apophis was at level 2 on the Torino impact hazard scale when it was first found in 2004. A score of 0 means there is almost no chance of impact, and a score of 10 means “a collision is certain, capable of causing a global climatic catastrophe that may threaten the future of civilization as we know it, whether impacting land or ocean.”

Even though Level 2 is low, it’s for things that are “making a somewhat close but not highly unusual pass near the Earth” and need more astronomers’ attention. It was raised to level 4 in December of that year, though, because there was a 1.6% chance that the asteroid would hit Earth in 2029.

NASA says that level 4 is “a close encounter that deserves astronomers’ attention.” “Right now, calculations show that there is a 1% or higher chance of a collision that could destroy a region.” It’s likely that new telescopic observations will lead to a move to Level 0. If the meeting is less than ten years away, the public and public officials should pay attention.

Over the years that scientists have been looking for and keeping an eye on near-earth objects (NEOs), none of them have gotten above level 4. Because they could be dangerous to Earth, they named one of them Apophis, after the Egyptian god of darkness and destruction. More observations showed that there would not be a collision in 2029, 2036, or 2068. However, they will still come very close.

“We no longer think that the asteroid will hit Earth in 2068,” Davide Farnocchia of NASA’s Center for Near-Earth Object Studies said. “Our calculations don’t show any impact risk for at least the next 100 years.”

This asteroid will come very close to Earth in 2029, coming within 32,000 kilometers (20,000 miles) of the surface. That’s closer than some of our satellites. The European Space Agency called the asteroid’s passing “one of the rarest space events of our lives,” and people in the Eastern Hemisphere should be able to see it without a telescope or binoculars.

The event is very rare because the object is so big—its average diameter is 375 meters (1230 feet)—and so close to Earth.

An X post from ESA said, “The 2029 flyby is a very rare event.” Scientists think that an asteroid as big as Apophis only comes this close to Earth once every 5,000 to 10,000 years. They found this by looking at the sizes and orbits of all known asteroids and impact craters around the solar system.

NASA wants to visit the asteroid during its approach with its OSIRIS APEX mission. This mission repurposed the asteroid sampler that used to be called OSIRIS-REx and sent it to meet the asteroid soon after it flew by.

“Our planet’s gravitational pull is expected to alter the asteroid’s orbit, change how and how fast it spins on its axis, and possibly cause quakes or landslides that will alter its surface,” NASA says about their planned mission. Researchers on Earth will be able to see these changes thanks to OSIRIS-APEX. Apophis is a “stony” asteroid made of silicate (or rocky) material and a mix of metallic nickel and iron. The OSIRIS-APEX spacecraft will also dip toward the surface of Apophis and fire its engines to kick up loose rocks and dust. By doing this, scientists will be able to determine the composition of the material just below the asteroid’s surface.

The ESA also wants to visit the asteroid because a flyby will teach us more about how to protect the Earth from these kinds of objects.

“Earth’s gravity will’stretch’ and’squeeze’ Apophis, triggering landslides and revealing lots about the asteroid’s material, structure, density, and cohesion,” ESA said. “This knowledge will help us protect Earth in the future.”

ESA said again that the asteroid is not a threat in 2029; it is just a beautiful sight and a chance to do some cool science in space.

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Astronomy

The exciting Lunar Standstill will be streamed live from Stonehenge

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People are very interested in Stonehenge, which is one of those famous landmarks. It is very clear that it lines up with the sun at the solstices, but no one is sure what the monument is for. But over the next few months, scientists will look at a different kind of alignment: some stones may be lined up with the lunar standstill.

In the sky, things move around. The sun moves around during the year because the planet is tilted with respect to its orbit. This means that the times when it rises and sets are often different. Stonehenge is set up so that the first rays of dawn on the summer solstice and the last rays of sunset on the winter solstice both pass through the middle.

But outside the stone circle are the so-called station stones, whose purpose is unknown. They don’t seem to be linked to the sun, but to the moon. The position of the moonrise and moonset changes because the moon’s orbit is tilted relative to the earth. This is similar to how the sun moves. But it doesn’t happen every year. The cycle goes around and around for 18.6 years.

When the Moon is at the fullest point of its cycle, it moves from 28.725 degrees north to 28.725 degrees south in just one month. The next one won’t happen until January 2025. This time is called the major lunar standstill (lunistice). So, scientists will be going to Stonehenge several times over the next few months, even during the major standstill, to figure out how the monument might line up with our natural satellite.

Talked to Heather Sebire, senior property curator at Stonehenge. “I think the moon in general would have been very important to them.” “And you know, maybe they could do things they couldn’t do other times when there was a full moon because there was more light.”

“They think the lunar standstill might have something to do with this because there are four rocks out in the middle of the ocean that are called “station stones.” Only two of them have been found so far. Together, they form a rectangle, which some people think may have something to do with the setting outside the circle.

When the Moon is in a minor standstill, its distance from the Earth is between 18.134° north and south. It will happen again in 2034.

As archaeologists continue to look into this interesting alignment, Stonehenge wants everyone to join in the fun. As usual, people will be able to enter the circle for the solstice, which this year is the earliest since 1796. However, the next day will be all about the lunistice.

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As the moon rises, the lunar standstill event can only be seen online. You can watch the livestream from the comfort of your own home and wonder with the researchers if this great monument was also lined up with the Moon.

 

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Astronomy

It’s true that the Earth is not orbiting the sun right now

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Some of the diagrams and animations that show how the planets move around the sun are not quite accurate. To be more precise, they are making the planets’ orbits easier to understand so that teachers don’t have to explain barycenters to kids who are still getting used to the idea that Earth isn’t the only planet in the universe.

Most of the time, the way you learn about how planets move around the sun looks like the video below.

But this version is easier to understand. The Sun has about 1,048 times the mass of Jupiter, making it the largest object in the Solar System. However, gravity works both ways. For the same reason that the Earth pulls on itself, you pull on the Earth as well, though it is much smaller.

“Kepler’s third law describes the relationship between the masses of two objects mutually revolving around each other and the determination of orbital parameters,” NASA says.

“Think about a small star that circles a bigger star. The two stars actually move around the same mass center, which is called the barycenter. That’s always the case, no matter how big or heavy the things are. Using a massive planet to measure how fast a star moves around its barycenter is one way that planetary systems linked to faraway stars have been found.

To keep things simple, we say that the planets go around the Sun. But because the Sun has the most mass, the barycenter of the Solar System’s objects is usually close to it. However, because of Jupiter and Saturn’s orbits and effects, it is almost never inside the Sun. The paths look a bit more like the video below, which was made by planetary astronomer and science communicator James O’Donoghue.

Because of this, the Earth is not orbiting a point inside the Sun right now because the barycenter is not there. We are not going around the sun, but that point in space.

“Planets orbit the Sun in general terms,” O’Donoghue says on Twitter, “but technically, they don’t orbit the Sun alone because the gravitational influence of (mainly) Jupiter means planets must orbit a new point in space.”

“The planets do orbit the Sun, of course; we are just being pedantic about the situation,” he said. “The natural thinking is that we orbit the Sun’s center, but that very rarely happens, i.e., it’s very rare for the solar system’s center of mass to align with the Sun’s center.”

Things that are smaller, like planets and their moons, are the same way. The Earth and Moon go around a point about 3,100 miles (5,100 kilometers) from the Earth’s center. This path changes as the moon moves farther away from the earth.

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