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Inalienable Right to Privacy in the Digital Age

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Digital privacy

The digital age has propelled discussion on the concept of an inalienable right to privacy for citizens. This issue transcends geopolitical boundaries. Generally speaking, the current global outlook on digital privacy aligns well with cultural worldviews about personal privacy. It is fact that societies may differ about the definition of privacy. However, there is no doubt that the concept is present in every facet of life on a daily basis. This is especially prominent when it comes to the power of digital information.

India’s Constitution and Protection of Personal Privacy

On July 19, India’s Supreme Court began hearings on whether the Indian constitution provides protection for fundamental rights to privacy. This is a serious case that will affect every facet of Indian society regardless which way the court rules. For instance, if the court rules that the constitution does indeed protect rights to privacy, then existing bans on beef and alcohol consumption will undoubtedly receive reviews. Likewise, there will be new arguments against the current law criminalizing homosexuality.

With this in mind, the laws governing user data collection are at stake. If India’s Supreme Court rules against constitutional protection of privacy, then the Indian government is free to collect any and all digital data. Such information includes spending habits, likes and dislikes, account balances and assets, family, friends, and everything else people record in digital format. Not surprisingly, people are justifiably wary about how the government will use such data. There are certainly countless examples of governments throughout history using information to advance agendas not in the best interest of the citizenry.

Concern about Exploitation and Commoditization of Personal Digital Data

People across the world are concerned with government access, use, and control of user data. The Indian government in May admitted that the data for around 135 million people had “leaked” online. While the government repeatedly said the data is secure, it is a major concern that hackers could acquire such data and use it illegally for profit.

Just recently, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco ruled that ISPs must comply with the gag order inherent in National Security Letters (NSLs). The gag order forbids institutions to whom the FBI sends an NSL from informing the target of an investigation. Our own Ule Lopez recently wrote about this. Critics of the ruling argue that this destroys our right to privacy.

Half a KB History of Personal Privacy in the USA

The history of the right to privacy in American law is quite fascinating. In fact, the US Constitution does not contain an explicit reference to any right to privacy. The First Amendment protects the free exercise of religion, speech, the press, the right to assemble peacefully, and to petition the government for redress of grievances. The Third and Fourth Amendments protect against the forceful housing of soldiers and against unreasonable searches and seizures, respectfully. The Constitution provides due process of law with the Fifth Amendment. Both the Ninth and Fourteenth Amendments provide more broad protections. The Ninth maintains citizen’s security against the Constitution itself, while the Fourteenth protects life, liberty, and property.

Lawyers and lawmakers crafted the concept of the right to privacy using a mixture of these Amendments. The first explicit reference to privacy rights in American law dates to the 1920s, and since then various politicians, lawmakers, and privacy advocates have molded the concept according to their own goals. There are some landmark cases that have had greater impacts than others on this concept. For example, the Supreme Court cited the First and Fourth Amendments in Stanley v George to protect your right to possess and view pornography. The Fourteenth Amendment protects against forcing children to attend public schools as ruled in Pierce v Society of Sisters. Likewise, the Fourteenth protects Roe v Wade.

Personal Privacy in the Digital Environment = Wishful Thinking?

digital privacy

Obviously, the concept of right to privacy rolled over into the digital age. For the most part, lawmakers have refused to make a stand. While there were attempts to define the boundaries of personal privacy on the internet, the new administration has repealed them. Recently, individuals and organizations have participated in events promoting net neutrality. Of course this is a worthy fight, but it is not the same as protection of personal data. Nor does it provide an inalienable or fundamental right to digital privacy even though the two are often bundled together. In fact, the definitions of inalienable and fundamental are fascinating topics, but we will leave that for a philological debate.

Despite our desire for an alternative fact, when you enter into a contract with an ISP or do business with an online retailer, you are willingly entering into a relationship dictated by that entity. These entities can do what they want with said data within the boundaries of the law, which, unfortunately, does not always protect the citizen. Unless you have been living under a rock for the last 30 years, you should know that there is only one option for maintaining any semblance of control over personal digital data. Don’t use the internet. Even then, government records are digitized, so almost everybody has varying degrees of personal data in digital form.

What do you think about India’s case and personal privacy in the digital age? Is personal privacy something that can be achieved, or does any law require compromises and total privacy is just wishful thinking?

Archaeology, technology, science, movies and TV shows, video games, government and politics, reading sci-fi and fantasy, '60s/70s classic rock. These are the areas in which I spend my days (somewhere in there are food and travel...).

Bionics

Redwire Space produces human knee cartilage in space for the first time

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Redwire Space has “bioprinted” a human knee meniscus on the International Space Station, which could treat Earthlings with meniscus issues.

The meniscus cartilage was manufactured on Redwire’s ISS BioFabrication Facility (BFF). The BFF printed the meniscus using living human cells and transmitted it to Redwire’s Advanced Space Experiment Processor for a 14-day enculturation process for BFF-Meniscus-2.

SpaceX’s Crew-6 mission returned the tissue to Earth after culturing. UAE astronaut Sultan Al-Neyadi and NASA astronauts Frank Rubio, Warren Hoburg, and Stephen Bowen investigated.

Redwire collaborated with the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Center for Biotechnology, which studies warfighter remedies, for the trial. Meniscus injuries are the most prevalent orthopedic injuries in U.S. service members.

In recent months, Redwire Space has advanced biotechnology. The subsidiary of Redwire Corporation launched a 30,000-square-foot biotech and microgravity research park in Indiana this summer.

Redwire EVP John Vellinger called the printing “groundbreaking milestone.”

He stated, “Demonstrating the ability to print complex tissue such as this meniscus is a major leap forward toward the development of a repeatable microgravity manufacturing process for reliable bioprinting at scale.”

The company has long-term bioprinting and space microgravity research goals. Redwire will fly microgravity pharmaceutical drug development and cardiac tissue bioprinting payloads on a November SpaceX Commercial Resupply trip to the ISS.

Sierra Space agreed to integrate Redwire’s biotech and in-space manufacturing technology into its Large Integrated Flexible Environment (LIFE) space station module. Orbital Reef, a private space station designed by Blue Origin, Boeing, and others, will include LIFE.

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Industry and Service

Best Practices for Using Composite IBC Totes

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According to the International Organization for Standardization (IOS), totes are classified into two categories. Let us take a closer look: 

First, there are intermediate bulk container (IBC) totes that are described as rigid. These are often made from metal, wood, or fiberboard. They are designed as a single unit and do not call for additional support when they are filled up. 

Then there is the composite kind. These are made up of a cage that supports and protects the inner lining when weight is added. As a result, the lining and the cage work in tandem as one unit. 

 

In this read, we are going to dive into the gist of things and explore practices that you should implement when it comes to using your 330 reconditioned IBC totes. Keep in mind that these are general requirements and you should seek specific advice from your supplier as your needs may be different. 

-If you intend to store products meant for human use, ensure the totes are food grade. This helps ascertain harmful interactions or reactions do not happen during transportation or storage. 

-When handling items with extremely low flashpoints, store them in totes that are explosion-proof. Some materials, however, will need permeation barriers to prevent them from diffusing through the lining. 

-In regards to hazmat transit, the container’s material as well as filling material compatibility should undergo thorough testing. These tests, however, can differ between European and American regions. They are put into place to determine the best material to use for your situation and so, is imperative to allocate enough time for comprehensive testing. 

 

The Best Practices for Filling & Handling/Shipping IBC Totes

 

  1. Filling

In order to fill a tote, the following three things should be done: 

-Close the outlet valve

-During filling, the process should be performed at atmospheric pressure, and shouldn’t go beyond 70ºC/158ºF. Therefore, the tote should not be pressurized. 

-During the cooling stage, the receptacle should be vented. This is to prevent vacuum deformation from occurring. Once this is done, ensure the cap is screwed in tightly. 

 

  1. Handling or Shipping

-The totes should be well-secured to make sure no damage occurs during transit

-Never use tie ropes on the totes with the intention of moving them this way. 

-If you are using a pallet jack or a forklift to handle the IBC totes, the forks should reach the pallets’ entire length. 

 

  1. Storage or Stacking

-Prior to stacking, it is imperative to identify the plate for stack testing. This helps determine whether the IBC totes are stackable. 

-Always put nesting into consideration. It means arranging the totes in a way that they fit closely together. An effective way to do this is by using a two on two configuration. 

-During transportation, the stack should not go beyond two layers

 

  1. Emptying

-When emptying a tote, only do it through the lower outlet valve. 

-Open the top before emptying to avoid a vacuum collapse

-If you are emptying through a pipe or a pump, make sure that it is supported and does not rely on the cage. If you use the cage to support the pump or pipe, the vibrations are likely to cause damage to the cage. 

 

The Takeaway

These are some of the general practices when handling composite IBC totes. It is also important to note that these practices are just the tip of the iceberg. As such, we recommend forming a relationship with a supplier that has been in the field for years to ensure that you always make informed decisions.

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Artificial Intelligence

The Matter standard is now supported by Google’s smart home appliances

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Only if goods truly support it can the Matter standard facilitate the use of smart home appliances from different brands. You don’t even need to download or install any updates because Google has just announced that it has enabled Matter compatibility for its Nest and Android devices. This means that Matter can now be controlled by the Google Home speaker, Google Home Mini, Nest Mini, Nest Audio, Nest Hub (1st and 2nd gen), Nest Hub Max, and the new Nest WiFi Pro.

Additionally, Google has made Matter compatibility available for Fast Pair on Android, which will let you to connect Matter-enabled devices to your home network “as rapidly as you can pair a set of headphones.” This functionality will make it simple to integrate your devices with apps and smart home ecosystems once they are linked. The tech behemoth has also upgraded the Nest Wi Pro, Nest Hub Max, and Nest Hub (2nd gen) to include Thread border router functionality. In this manner, you can utilize them to link items that support Thread, the networking standard for low-power gadgets like smart locks.

Since 2019, the Connectivity Standards Alliance, of which Google is a member, has been working on the Matter standard to address the fragmentation issue in the smart home market and make it simpler to use products from various manufacturers. It had to postpone Matter’s release a few times before it was eventually able to roll out the standard’s version 1.0 definition and product certification program this October. It had originally planned to introduce the standard in 2021. Soon after Matter was released, Samsung said that it is collaborating with Google to make it simple to add devices that are already configured with SmartThings to Google Home and vice versa. One of the other founders of the Alliance, Amazon, also provided a list of the 17 Echo devices that will support the standard as of this month.

The number of products that are Matter-enabled is now somewhat small, but according to Google, this holiday season and early 2023 will witness an increase. With the exception of the aforementioned Google items, all devices that implement the standard will be identified by the Matter badge and will function with all other Matter devices right out of the box.

 

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